Tag Archives: Mexico

Review of PBS’ “Black in Latin America”: Mexico/Peru

An 18th Century Casta Painting from Mexico, showing different racial combinations.

In my mother’s home country of Ecuador, there’s a province that is unlike any other.

Where the majority of the population is of either pure indigenous or mestizo (mixed white-indigenous) extraction, Esmeraldas appears as a stark contrast to the norm. The province, located on the northern coast abutting Colombia, appears better suited to the Caribbean than to an Andean country. Even with large white and native populations, Esmeraldas is dominated by Africans imported during the Spanish conquest of the 16th Century. Its culture and traditions point farther east than the Andes, towards the coasts of West Africa from which their ancestors were taken.

Athletes from Esmeraldas are especially successful. A glance at Ecuador’s soccer team would have one think they were from Cuba, Trinidad or Jamaica—anything but a South American mountain republic.

There are enclaves like Esmeraldas in many countries in Central and South America. In the last chapter of PBS’ Black in Latin America, Henry Louis Gates looks at two such areas: the black peoples of Veracruz and the Costa Chica in Mexico and the enclave outside Lima, Peru.

Unlike the Caribbean, Central and South America’s native population was too vast and too concentrated to be wiped out. The cultures of these areas, thus, carried a more Amerindian hue. The exception is the Southern Cone, where marginal native populations, as well as Africans, were absorbed into large European immigrant communities.

Yet according to Gates, the African influence is much larger than we realize—especially as African influences were absorbed or subsumed into the larger Hispano-Amerindian community.

More Africans were imported into Mexico and Peru than the United States. Almost half of all enslaved Africans imported to Spanish America came to Mexico. Cities such as Lima and Veracruz contained a distinct African hue, in contrast to the Spanish-native hybrid culture that surrounds them. Many Mexicans and Peruvians contain some African blood, even those that look mestizo. Furthermore, cultural aspects such as music, dance, and food contained as much African influence as from Europe and the Americas.

So apart from a few enclaves, where did all the Africans go?

In Mexico, the slave boom was early and brief, through the 17th century, and emancipation came sooner (in 1829). Blacks intermarried earlier and more vigorously, and by the 1920s it was difficult to even tell who was of African descent. Officially, scholars and politicians extolled the multi-racial “brownness” of Mexico’s people—a homogenization of all cultures that pushed black identity into the background.

A similar pattern occurred in Peru and other South American nations. Although emancipation was more gradual in South America, the overwhelming native and mestizo populations mixed just as vigorously into African families, creating a similar “brownness” to the Mexican experience.

The most dramatic—and tragic—example is on the Rio de la Plata in Argentina, where black populations were almost entirely integrated into either mestizo or, more commonly, European immigrant populations. In effect, this did in fact wipe out the African influence on the Southern Cone, with the exception of Uruguay, where blacks and mulattos from neighboring Brazil buttress their own communities.

So in looking at these groups, and the series in a whole, I’m left with one question: Is racial intermingling and color-blindness necessarily a good thing?

A common theme in this chapter, and in the series, is the mistaken benevolence of color-blindness. For many in Latin America, especially places like the Dominican Republic, Cuba and Brazil, it was thought that the mixing of races would create a new pan-racial harmony that transcended labels and heritage. Gates himself points out that this benevolent “openness” is in itself a form of racism, in that it refuses to deal with the realities of culture and especially domestic social problems.

To be honest, Gates has a point. People are not ingredients in a soup, where different flavors and textures get blended together to make one uniform concoction. There will always be shades of color among us, and whenever there is difference, there is usually some form of discrimination be it overt or subtle. Otherwise, the enclaves of Afro-Latin Americans in Esmeraldas, Veracruz, Lima and the Costa Chica would not exist.

Yet I also get a sense—and I think Gates feels it also—that even though it may be merely a pipe dream, “racial democracy” is something worth striving for. There is hope that in the future there can be a time where all people are treated equally and fairly—while at the same time acknowledging and celebrating the different cultures that have shaped the American continent.

That hope was seen in the universities in Brazil, among young people in the Dominican Republic, in the activists striving in the Costa Chica in Mexico, and even the underground rappers and artists in Cuba that fight for their identity even when official policy condemns them as treasonous.

Whatever the future holds, this much is certain: the cultures of Latin America would not be the same if it weren’t for the millions of Africans kidnapped and brought to these shores. They gave far more than they ever got in return.

In acknowledging their contributions, it goes a small way to repaying that debt.


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Videos for the Classroom: BBC’s “Conquistadors” – The fall of the Aztecs

Today’s video is Episode 1 of Michael Wood‘s 2001 BBC documentary The Conquistadors.  This episode covers the first post-Columbus push into the American continent: Hernan Cortes‘ 1519-1522 expedition into Mexico.

In 1519, Hernan Cortes led a band of adventurers and treasure-seekers into the flourishing Aztec empire.  By utilizing resentment of imprisoned tribes, as well as exploiting Aztec legends of the god Quetzalcoatl, the Spaniards managed to penetrate Mexico all the way into the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan and the embattled Aztec emperor Montezuma II.  Within a couple of years, the Aztec empire collapsed, and the Spanish would establish the colony of New Spain, with Mexico City built on the ruins of the old Aztec capital.

Wood’s movie is important, in that it not only chronicles the Cortes expedition and its aftermath, but also views the events through the lens of modern Mexico, highlighting how the conquest has affected this area even today.  As so many students are now studying the first European encounters in the Americas, this film would make a worthwhile compliment to your unit planning.

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This Day in History 5/5: The Battle of Puebla and “Cinco de Mayo”

Let’s be perfectly clear, once and for all.

Cinco de Mayo is NOT Mexico’s independence day.  That would be September 16, the day Mexico declared its independence from Spain.

And it was not an invention Corona and Jose Cuervo, either…despite what the marketing at happy hour tells you.

In 1861, Benito Juarez, president of Mexico, stopped all interest payments to Mexican loans from European countries.  Most countries wished to occupy the port of Veracruz until the debt was paid.  The French, however, tried their hand at occupation.

A 6,000 strong French army reached the town of Puebla, near Mexico City, in 1862.  They were the cream of France’s military, including Chasseurs d’Afrique (Hunters of Africa), feared colonial troops, Zouaves, and the French Foreign Legion.  The Mexican army totaled 4,500-4,600, mostly veterans of the Reform Wars, a civil war that swept through Mexico a decade earlier.  Though not exactly the ragtag army of legend, the Mexicans were perceived as outmatched.

Yet the French made a grave miscalculation.  They thought the local population would be friendly to the French invaders, since they were on the wrong side of the Reform Wars.  Those old animosities didn’t matter anymore.  After wasting their ammunition and a bad turn in the weather, the French were beaten back by the solid defense of the Mexican veterans. 

462 French soldiers died, with over 300 wounded and 8 taken prisoner.  The Mexicans lost only 83, with 131 wounded.  It would be the last time a European army would formally (emphasis on formally) attack a country in the Western Hemisphere.

Suprisingly, even though Benito Juarez declared a national holiday for May 5, it is not considered a federal holiday in Mexico today.  On this side of the border, Cinco de Mayo has degenerated further, from a celebration of Mexican culture to an excuse to get sloshed on bad margaritas and buckets of Corona.

So tonight, as you tie one on with your umpteenth tequila shot, remember why we celebrate today.  The video attached, while a little crude, gives most of the important details.

The Epilogue of the Cuba Chronicles will return next time.

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